Orphan Drug Designation in USA:
There are two routes (criteria) for obtaining orphan designation of a drug and biologics for a rare disease or condition.
Orphan drug designation and approval may be granted if application meets one of the following criteria.
(1)If a product is intended for treatment, prevention or diagnosis a disease or condition that has a prevalence of less than 200,000 Individuals in USA.(FDC Act § 526(a)(2)(A))
(2) even if a disease or condition affects 200,000 or more individuals, then also sponsor can seek orphan drug designation for its product.
It can only be possible if a sponsor can show that there is no reasonable expectation that the costs of drug development and making available to market can be recovered by its sale in USA. (FDC Act § 526(a)(2)(B) cost recovery provisions of the act)
Orphan Drug Designation in European Union
In order to get qualified for orphan designation, a drug candidate must meet a number of criteria:
- Drug candidate must be intended for the treatment, prevention or diagnosis of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases.
- the prevalence of the condition in the European Union must not be more than 5 in 10,000 or there must be no reasonable expectation that the costs of drug development and making available to market can be recovered by its sale in the EU.
- “no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment of the condition concerned can be authorized, or, if such a method exists, the medicine must be of significant benefit to those affected by the condition” as per EMA
Related: The Drug approval process in EU:
Drug Approval process-FDA
Orphan Drug Designation by JAPAN:
The drug candidate (and Medical Device) Should meet the following criteria to get orphan drug Designation:
The number of patients who may use the drug or medical device should not exceed 50 000 in Japan.
Intended indication for the treatment of serious diseases, including difficult-to-treat diseases.
“Additionally, they must be drugs or medical devices for which there are strong medical needs that meet one of the following requirements.
1. No appropriate alternative drug/medical device or treatment available
2. High efficacy or safety is expected compared with existing products”
There should be a theoretical rationale for the use of the product for the target disease, and the development plan should be appropriate.” as per MHLW